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Truck Fleet Model for Design and Assessment of Flexible Pavements     0 4303 01.04.2010
  The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model which aims to reproduce the mean and varia ...[more]
Reduction of bridge dynamic amplification through adjustment of vehicle suspension damping     0 4884 07.12.2009
  This paper presents a novel approach to the reduction of short-span bridge dynamic responses to heavy vehicle crossing events. The reductions are achieved through adjustment of the vehicle suspension damping coefficient just before the crossing. Given pre-calculations of the response of a vehicle–bridge system to a set of `unit¿ road disturbances, it is shown that a single optimum damping coefficient may be determined for a given velocity and any specified road profile. This approac ...[more]
Characteristic traffic load effects from a mixture of loading events on short to medium span bridges     4 4461 02.05.2011
  In recent years highway bridge load assessment has been recognised as an area through which savings can be made by avoiding unnecessary bridge refurbishment and replacement. Load effects in bridges result from single truck crossings or multiple-truck presence events which are, statistically, not identically distributed. Conventional approaches fit statistical distributions to mixtures of non-identically distributed load effects. Inaccuracies in the conventional approach are identified and an alt ...[more]
The use of Bayesian Statistics to predict patterns of spatial repeatability     3 4722 01.04.2010
  Statistical spatial repeatability (SSR) is an extension to the well known concept of spatial repeatability. SSR states that the mean of many patterns of dynamic tyre force applied to a pavement surface is similar for a fleet of trucks of a given type. A model which can accurately predict patterns of SSR could subsequently be used in whole-life pavement deterioration models as a means of describing pavement loading due to a fleet of vehicles. This paper presents a method for predicting patterns o ...[more]
RIPCORD-ISEREST Safety Handbook for Secondary Roads     0 4975 07.12.2009
  The handbook has been designed for giving a quick preliminary indication about a specific road safety problem, with technical and scientific background information given in the annexes or in specific references to other RiPCORD-iSEREST tools and deliverables. It contains information about the background of road safety, geometric parameters, road elements, human factors and it will be particularly valuable in European regions less advanced in the field of road safety management. ...[more]
The effects of long and heavy trucks on the transport system. Report on a government assignment     0 4946 30.03.2009
  Trucks up to 25.25 metres in length and weighing up to 60 tonnes are permitted in domestic traffic in Sweden. This deviates from the EU standard, according to which trucks are not to be longer than 18.75 metres or weigh more than 40 tonnes. The Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications has commissioned VTI to study what economic consequences this deviation has had for Sweden and to describe the competition interface between road and rail transport. The effects on transport costs for bus ...[more]
TRL235 Traffic calming: vehicle generated ground-borne vibration alongside speed control cushions and road humps     0 4575 23.04.2009
  This report describes a study to assess ground-borne vibration levels generated by a wide range of vehicle types crossing different road humps and cushion designs. For each vehicle, drive-bys were performed at speeds between 15 and 45 km/h which represented the range of typical crossing speeds recorded on the public highway for the profile designs used in the study. Ground-borne vibration was detected at a reference distance beside each profile design and the maximum level recorded for each driv ...[more]
TRL312 Traffic calming - speed cushion schemes     0 4850 23.04.2009
  The most effective forms of traffic calming measure usually involve some degree of vertical deflection. Road humps have proven to be highly effective at reducing vehicle speeds, but discomfort to drivers and passengers is increased, particularly in larger vehicles such as buses, lorries, fire engines and ambulances. Speed cushions are designed to limit the vertical deflection of large vehicles with wide track widths by allowing these vehicles to straddle the cushions. Vertical deflection for sma ...[more]
TRL377 Traffic calming - sinusoidal, `H' and `S' humps     0 5194 23.04.2009
  The original work on speed reducing road humps was carried out in the 1970's at TRL and was based on circular profile (round-top) humps of various dimensions. These track trials led to the adoption of the 'standard 3.7 metre long' circular profile hump which can be up to 100 mm high. Since the 1980's the regulations governing the use of road humps in Great Britain have been gradually relaxed to allow greater flexibility in the shape of humps so as to include flat-top humps, raised junctions and ...[more]
TRL462 Cycle track crossings of minor roads     0 4671 23.04.2009
  Cycle tracks can help cyclists to avoid sharing busy roads with motor vehicles. One of the main problems with providing them, however, is the design of crossings of minor roads. This introduces a hazard and cyclists are usually required to give way. Highway authorities have been reluctant to give priority to cyclists in case drivers fail to observe the priorities and casualties occur. This project investigates the safety and effectiveness of a variety of cycle track crossing arrangements at mino ...[more]
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